# Elements of Machine Design-01

## Fundamentals of machine design

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1   The modulus of elasticity for mild steel is approximately equal to
(A)   80 kN/mm2
(B)   100 kN/mm2
(C)   110 kN/mm2
(D)   210 kN/mm2

2   Which of the following factors affect the mechanical properties of a material under applied loads?
(A)   Content of alloys
(B)   Grain size
(C)   Imperfection and defects
(D)   Shape of material

3   The lower layer of the beam as shown in the below figure, will be

(A)   In tension
(B)   In compression
(C)   Neither in tension nor in compression
(D)   None of these

4   The constant factor in case of R10 series of preferred numbers is
(A)   1.06
(B)   1.12
(C)   1.26
(D)   1.58

5   The objective of, a standard is to reduce the variety and limit the number of items to a reasonable level.
(A)   TRUE
(B)   FALSE

6   The basic series of preferred numbers are
(A)   R5, R10, R20, R40 and R80
(B)   R10, R20, R30, R40 and R50
(C)   R5, R10, R15, R20 and R25
(D)   None of the above

7   ISO stands for _____.
(A)   Indian Statistical Organization
(B)   Inter State Organization
(C)   International Standards Organization
(D)   Indian Standards Organization

8   ANSI stands for ___
(A)   American National Standards Institute
(B)   American National Standard Interface
(C)   American Network Standard Interfacing
(D)   American Network Security Interrupt

9   According to maximum strain energy theory, failure of material due to complex stresses occurs when total stored energy per unit volume at a point ___________
(A)   reaches the value of yield point
(B)   reaches the value of strain energy stored per unit volume at yield point
(C)   reaches the value of strain energy stored per unit volume at elastic limit
(D)   exceeds total strain energy caused by uniaxial stress at elastic point

10   For designing ductile materials, which of the following theories is/are used?
(A)   Maximum shear stress theory
(B)   Shear strain energy theory
(C)   Both A and B
(D)   None of the above

11   St. Venant’s theory is also known as maximum _________
(A)   principle stress theory
(B)   shear stress theory
(C)   principle strain theory
(D)   strain energy theory

12   Which theory gives satisfactory results for brittle materials?
(A)   Maximum shear stress theory
(B)   Maximum principal stress theory
(C)   Shear strain energy theory
(D)   None of the above

13   Maximum shear stress theory is also called as
(A)   Guest’s theory
(B)   Haigh theory
(C)   Rankine theory
(D)   None

14   Maximum shear stress theory is applicable to
(A)   Ductile materials
(B)   Brittle materials
(C)   Composite materials
(D)   None

15   Under maximum shear stress theory, maximum shear stress is equal to
(A)   Allowable stress in tension
(B)   Allowable stress in compression
(C)   Allowable stress in shear
(D)   None

16   Total strain energy theory for the failure f a material at elastic limit, is known as
(A)   Guest’s or Trecas’ theory
(B)   St. Venant’s theory
(C)   Rankine’s theory
(D)   Haig’s theory

17   According to Indian standard specifications, SG 400/15 means
(A)   Spheroidal graphite cast iron with B.H.N. 400 and minimum tensile strength 15 MPa
(B)   Spheroidal graphite cast iron with minimum tensile strength 400 MPa and 15 percent elongation
(C)   Spheroidal graphite cast iron with minimum compressive strength 400 MPa and 15 percent reduction in area
(D)   None of the above

18   Which steel will have maximum percentage of carbon?
(A)   C 14
(B)   15 Cr 65
(C)   20 Cr 18 Ni 2
(D)   40 Cr 40

19   20C8 is a
(A)   Plain carbon steel
(B)   Low alloy steel
(C)   High alloy steel
(D)   Cast steel

20   10C8S20 is a
(A)   Plain carbon steel
(B)   Low alloy steel
(C)   High alloy steel
(D)   Free cutting steel

21   The material 35Mn2Mo28 has
(A)   3.5% carbon
(B)   0.5% manganese
(C)   28% molybdenum
(D)   0.28% molybdenum

22   The material 35Mn2Mo28 has
(A)   Low alloy steel
(B)   High alloy steel
(C)   Cast steel
(D)   Free cutting steel

23   The material XT75W18Cr4V1 has
(A)   0.75% carbon
(B)   1.8% Tungsten
(C)   10% Vanadium
(D)   1% Chromium

24   The material XT75W18Cr4V1 is
(A)   High alloy steel
(B)   High alloy tool steel
(C)   Low alloy steel
(D)   Free cutting steel

25   Identify the material X50Cr15Ni8
(A)   It is a high alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 15% chromium and 8% Nickel
(B)   It is a low alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 15% chromium and 8% Nickel
(C)   It is a high alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 1.5% chromium and 8% Nickel
(D)   It is a high alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 1.5% chromium and 0.8% Nickel

26   The stiffness is the ability of a material to resist
(A)   Deformation under stress
(B)   Fracture due to high impact loads
(C)   Externally applied forces with breakdown or yielding
(D)   None of the above

27   Plain carbon steels are alloys mainly consisting of _________
(A)   Iron and Carbon
(B)   Potassium and Iron
(C)   Carbon and Potassium
(D)   Carbon and Indium

28   Which of the following is also known as mild steel?
(A)   Plain carbon steel
(B)   Low carbon steel
(C)   Medium carbon steel
(D)   High carbon steel

29   Mild steel contains
(A)   less than 0.3 % carbon
(B)   0.3 to 0.6 % carbon
(C)   0.6 to 1.4 % carbon
(D)   3 to 4 % carbon

30   Medium carbon steel contains
(A)   less than 0.3 % carbon
(B)   0.3 to 0.6 % carbon
(C)   0.6 to 1.4 % carbon
(D)   3 to 4 % carbon

31   Door hinges of automobiles can be made using which material?
(A)   Grey Cast Iron
(B)   White Cast Iron
(C)   Nodular Cast Iron
(D)   Malleable Cast Iron

32   Material used for machine tool beds is
(A)   cast iron
(B)   mild steel
(C)   high carbon steel
(D)   alloy steel

33   A cast iron designated by FG300 is,
(A)   grey cast iron with carbon content of 3%
(B)   grey cast iron with ultimate tensile strength of 300 MPa
(C)   grey cast iron with shear strength of 300 MPa
(D)   grey cast iron with tensile yield strength of 300 MPa

34   A material designated by 40C8 means
(A)   plain carbon steel with ultimate tensile strength of 400 MPa and 0.8% carbon
(B)   plain carbon steel with 0.35 to 0.45% carbon and 0.7to 0.9% manganese
(C)   plain carbon steel with 0.8% carbon and 4 % manganese
(D)   plain carbon steel with 40% carbon and 8% manganese

35   What cast iron has modular or spheroidal graphite?
(A)   Ductile iron
(B)   Wrought iron
(C)   Gray iron
(D)   White iron

36   Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with limits on the amount of carbon to less than ______ percent.
(A)   2
(B)   3
(C)   4
(D)   1

37   A cast iron designated by BM350 is,
(A)   blackheart malleable cast iron with carbon content of 3.5%
(B)   blackheart malleable cast iron with ultimate tensile strength of 350 MPa
(C)   blackheart malleable cast iron with ultimate compressive strength of 350 MPa
(D)   blackheart malleable cast iron with tensile yield strength of 350 MPa

38   The ability of a material to undergo plastic deformation without fracture when subjected to uniaxial tensile force is ___
(A)   Ductility
(B)   Malleability
(C)   Tensile Strength
(D)   Yield Strength

39   The ability of a material to absorb energy when elastically deformed and to return it when unloaded is called __________
(A)   Elasticity
(B)   Resilience
(C)   Plasticity
(D)   Strain resistance

40   The strain energy stored in a specimen when stained within the elastic limit is known as __________
(A)   Resilience
(B)   Plasticity
(C)   Malleability
(D)   Stain energy

41   The property by which an amount of energy is absorbed by material without plastic deformation is called __________
(A)   Toughness
(B)   Impact strength
(C)   Ductility
(D)   Resilience

42   The property of a material which enables it to absorb energy and deform plastically without fracture is ______
(A)   Stiffness
(B)   Toughness
(C)   Hardness
(D)   Resilience

43   The percentage elongation and the percentage reduction in area depends upon
(A)   Tensile strength of the material
(B)   Ductility of the material
(C)   Toughness of the material
(D)   None of these

44   The property of a material by which it can be beaten or rolled into thin sheets, is called
(A)   Elasticity
(B)   Plasticity
(C)   Ductility
(D)   Malleability

45   A brittle material has
(A)   No elastic zone
(B)   No plastic zone
(C)   Large plastic zone
(D)   None of these

46   Brittleness is opposite to
(A)   Toughness
(B)   Plasticity
(C)   Malleability
(D)   None of these

47   Cast iron is
(A)   Very malleable
(B)   tough
(C)   heavy and brittle
(D)   ductile

48   Factor of safety is defined as the ratio of
(A)   Ultimate stress to working stress
(B)   Working stress to ultimate stress
(C)   Breaking stress to ultimate stress
(D)   Ultimate stress to breaking stress

49   For brittle materials having static load, factor of safety is given as the ratio of ______
(A)   endurance strength and design stress
(B)   design stress and allowable stress
(C)   working stress and allowable stress
(D)   ultimate strength and design stress

50   Which of the following factors are not considered while selecting values for factor of safety?
(A)   Cost
(B)   Failure consequences
(C)   Degree of uncertainty about loading and material
(D)   None of the above

51   For ductile materials, the factor of safety is the ratio of yield stress to ___________
(A)   tenacity
(B)   ultimate stress
(C)   working stress
(D)   shear stress

52   What is accounted for by the factor of safety?
(A)   Uncertainties
(B)   Linear displacements
(C)   Parabolic displacements
(D)   None

53   Principal planes are mutually inclined at
(A)   45 degree
(B)   60 degree
(C)   90 degree
(D)   180 degree

54   Principal planes are those planes on which
(A)   Normal stress is maximum
(B)   Normal stress is minimum
(C)   Normal stress is either maximum or minimum
(D)   Shear stress is maximum

55   In a general two dimensional stress system, planes of maximum shear stress are inclined at ___ with principal planes.
(A)   90 degree
(B)   180 degree
(C)   45 degree
(D)   60 degree

56   In a general two dimensional stress system, the planes on which shear stress is zero
(A)   The normal stress is minimum
(B)   Normal stress is zero
(C)   Normal stress is either maximum or minimum
(D)   None of these

57   Angle of obliquity is defined as
(A)   Angle between the plane on which stresses are evaluated and one of the given planes
(B)   Angle between resultant stress and the plane of given normal stress
(C)   Angle between resultant stress and shear stress
(D)   Angle between resultant stress and normal stress

58   The ratio of the largest load in a test to the original cross-sectional area of the test piece is called
(A)   Elastic limit
(B)   Yield stress
(C)   Ultimate stress
(D)   Breaking stress

59   When a body is subjected to biaxial stress i.e. direct stresses (σx) and (σy) in two mutually perpendicular planes accompanied by a simple shear stress (τxy), then maximum normal stress is
(A)   (σx + σy)/2 + (1/2) × √[(σx – σy)2 + 4 τ2xy]
(B)   (σx + σy)/2 – (1/2) × √[(σx – σy)2 + 4 τ2xy]
(C)   (σx – σy)/2 + (1/2) × √[(σx + σy)2 + 4 τ2xy]
(D)   (σx – σy)/2 – (1/2) × √[(σx + σy)2 + 4 τ2xy]

60   The neutral axis of the cross-section a beam is that axis at which the bending stress is
(A)   zero
(B)   minimum
(C)   maximum
(D)   infinity

61   When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite pushes, as a result of which the body tends to reduce its length, the stress and strain induced is compressive.
(A)   TRUE
(B)   FALSE

62   Punching operation is an example of
(A)   Static load
(B)   Impact load
(C)   Fluctuating load
(D)   None of the above

63   Density of water in kg m-3 is
(A)   1000
(B)   100
(C)   10000
(D)   4000

64   Other common name of the factor of safety is
(A)   Factor of Strength
(B)   Factor of Strain
(C)   Factor of Ignorance
(D)   None of the above

65   Under exact analysis of stresses,what will be value of factor of safety in a body?
(A)   More
(B)   Less
(C)   Zero
(D)   None of the above

66   Effect of higher factor of safety on cost of the material?
(A)   Increases
(B)   Decreases
(C)   No change
(D)   None

67   The factor of safety for a ductile material
(A)   σyp/σallow
(B)   σult/σallow
(C)   σult/σyp
(D)   None

68   Large value of factor of safety is
(A)   Very good
(B)   Good
(C)   Bad
(D)   None

69   What is bearing pressure?
(A)   Tensile force acting on the contact area between two components having relative motion between them
(B)   Tensile stress acting on the contact area between two components having relative motion between them
(C)   Compressive force acting on the contact area between two components having no relative motion between them
(D)   Compressive stress acting on the contact area between two components having relative motion between them

70   The bending stress in a curved beam is
(A)   Zero at the neutral axis
(B)   Maximum at the neutral axis
(C)   Zero at the inner fiber
(D)   Zero at the outer fiber

71   What are the SI units of torsion?
(A)   N-m
(B)   kg-m
(C)   kgf-m
(D)   N/m

72   Standardization deals with the characteristics of product that include
(A)   dimensions of machine elements
(B)   method of testing the product
(C)   composition and properties of engineering materials
(D)   All the three

73   Indentify the material X50Cr15Ni8
(A)   It is a high alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 15% chromium and 8% Nickel
(B)   It is a low alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 15% chromium and 8% Nickel
(C)   It is a high alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 1.5% chromium and 8% Nickel
(D)   It is a high alloy steel with 0.5% carbon, 1.5% chromium and 0.8% Nickel

74   Time dependent yield is known as
(A)   Fracture
(B)   Fatigue
(C)   Buckling
(D)   Creep

75   What term is used for the maximum stress at which material fail on a specified number of cycle?
(A)   Fatigue strength
(B)   Fatigue life
(C)   Ultimate tensile strength
(D)   Creep

76   The criterion of failure for machine parts subjected to fluctuating stresses is
(A)   ultimate tensile strength
(B)   yield strength
(C)   endurance limit
(D)   modulus of elasticity

77   Maximum principal stress theory is applicable to
(A)   Ductile materials
(B)   Brittle materials
(C)   Composite materials
(D)   None

78   The state of the worker by which the capacity and willingness for doing work is reduced is called
(A)   Stress
(B)   Fatigue
(C)   Creep
(D)   None of the above

79   A transmission shaft subjected to pure torsion should be designed on the basis of
(A)   Maximum principal stress theory
(B)   Maximum shear stress theory
(C)   Distortion energy theory
(D)   Goodman or Soderberg diagrams

80   The normal stress is perpendicular to the area under considerations, while the shear stress acts over the area.
(A)   TRUE
(B)   FALSE

81   If a body is subjected to stresses in xy plane with stresses of 60N/mm² and 80N/mm² acting along x and y axes respectively. Also the shear stress acting is 20N/mm²Find the maximum amount of shear stress to which the body is subjected.
(A)   22.4mm
(B)   25mm
(C)   26.3mm
(D)   27.2mm

82   If a body is subjected to stresses in xy plane with stresses of 60N/mm² and 80N/mm² acting along x and y axes respectively. Also the shear stress acting is 10N/mm². Find the inclination of the plane in which shear stress is maximal.
(A)   45 deg
(B)   30 deg
(C)   60 deg
(D)   15 deg

83   If a body is subjected to stresses in xy plane with stresses of 60N/mm² and 80N/mm² acting along x and y axes respectively. Also the shear stress acting is 20N/mm². Find the maximum normal stress.
(A)   90
(B)   92.4
(C)   94.2
(D)   96

84   If a body is subjected to stresses in xy plane with stresses of 60N/mm² and 80N/mm² acting along x and y axes respectively. Also the shear stress acting is 20N/mm². Find the minimum normal stress.
(A)   45.4
(B)   47.6
(C)   48.2
(D)   50.6

85   Maximum Principal Stress Theory is not good for brittle materials.
(A)   TRUE
(B)   FALSE

86   Distortion energy theory is slightly liberal as compared to maximum shear stress theory.
(A)   TRUE
(B)   FALSE

87   Distortion energy theorem is not recommended for ductile materials.
(A)   TRUE
(B)   FALSE

88   Among maximum shear stress theory and distortion energy theory, which gives the higher value shear yield strength?
(A)   Maximum shear stress theory
(B)   Distortion energy theory
(C)   Both give equal values
(D)   Vary from material to material

89   A cylinder-piston configuration converts
(A)   Kinetic energy into pressure energy
(B)   Pressure energy into kinetic energy
(C)   Chemical energy into kinetic energy
(D)   None

90   An electric motor converts
(A)   Magnetic energy into kinetic energy
(B)   Electric energy into magnetic energy
(C)   Electric energy into mechanical energy
(D)   None

91   A Generator converts
(A)   Electric energy into mechanical energy
(B)   energy into kinetic energy
(C)   Electric energy into magnetic energy
(D)   None

92   The electric Generator converts
(A)   Electric energy into kinetic energy
(B)   Mechanical energy into kinetic energy
(C)   Mechanical energy into electrical energy
(D)   None

93   A blower converts
(A)   Mechanical energy into kinetic energy
(B)   Electric energy into kinetic energy
(C)   Mechanical energy into electrical energy
(D)   None

94   The ability of materials to develop a characteristic behaviour under repeated loading known as
(A)   Toughness
(B)   Resilience
(C)   Hardness
(D)   Fatigue

95   The ability of a material to be formed by hammering or rolling is known as
(A)   Malleability
(B)   Ductility
(C)   Harness
(D)   Brittleness

96   Deformation that occurs due to stress over a period of time is known as
(A)   Wear resistance
(B)   Fatigue
(C)   Creep
(D)   Fracture

97   Toughness of a material is equal to the area under part(s) of the stress-strain curve.
(A)   Elastic
(B)   Plastic
(C)   Both
(D)   None of the above

98   —– is an example of a chemical property.
(A)   Density
(B)   Mass
(C)   Acidity
(D)   Diffusivity

99   How much carbon is present in cast irons?
(A)   Less than 0.05%
(B)   Up to 1.5%
(C)   1.5% to 2%
(D)   More than 2%

100   Which of these are applications of grey cast iron?
(A)   Camshafts, engine blocks
(B)   Wear plates, pump linings
(C)   Brake shoes, pedals
(D)   Gears, rocker arms

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